MS-BioGraphs MS1

NameMS-BioGraphs – MS1
Download Link
Script for Downloading All Files
Validating and Sample Code
Graph ExplanationVertices represent proteins and each edge represents the sequence similarity between its two endpoints
Edge WeightedYes
Number of Vertices43,144,218
Number of Edges2,660,495,200
Maximum Degree14,212
Minimum Weight3,680
Maximum Weight634,925
Number of Zero-Degree Vertices0
Average Degree61.7
Size of The Largest WCC124,003,393
Number of WCC15,746,208
Creation DetailsMS-BioGraphs: Sequency Similarity Graph Datasets
LicenseCC BY-NC-SA
QUB IDF2223-052
Mohsen Koohi Esfahani, Sebastiano Vigna, 
Paolo Boldi, Hans Vandierendonck, Peter Kilpatrick, March 13, 2024, 
"MS-BioGraphs: Trillion-Scale Sequence Similarity Graph Datasets", 
IEEE Dataport, doi:
doi = {10.21227/gmd9-1534},
url = {},
author = {Koohi Esfahani, Mohsen and Vigna, Sebastiano and Boldi, 
Paolo and Vandierendonck, Hans and Kilpatrick, Peter},
publisher = {IEEE Dataport},
title = {MS-BioGraphs: Trillion-Scale Sequence Similarity Graph Datasets},
year = {2024} }


Underlying Graph The underlying graph in WebGraph format:
  • File: MS1-underlying.graph, Size: 6,300,911,484 Bytes
  • File: MS1-underlying.offsets, Size: 77,574,569 Bytes
  • File:, Size: 1,288 Bytes
Total Size: 6,378,487,341 Bytes
These files are validated using ‘Edge Blocks SHAs File’ as follows.
Weights (Labels) The weights of the graph in WebGraph format:
  • File: MS1-weights.labels, Size: 8,201,441,365 Bytes
  • File: MS1-weights.labeloffsets, Size: 80,797,007 Bytes
  • File:, Size: 184 Bytes
Total Size: 8,282,238,556 Bytes
These files are validated using ‘Edge Blocks SHAs File’ as follows.
Edge Blocks SHAs File (Text) This file contains the shasums of edge blocks where each block contains 64 Million continuous edges and has one shasum for its 64M endpoints and one for its 64M edge weights.
The file is used to validate the underlying graph and the weights. For further explanation about validation process, please visit the
  • Name: MS1_edges_shas.txt
  • Size: 5,040 Bytes
  • SHASUM: 27974edb4bf8f3b17b00ff3a72a703da18f3807a
Offsets (Binary) The offsets array of the CSX (Compressed Sparse Rows/Columns) graph in binary format and little endian order. It consists of |V|+1 8-Bytes elements.
The first and last values are 0 and |E|, respectively.
This array helps converting the graph (or parts of it) from WebGraph format to binary format by one pass over (related) edges.
  • Name: MS1_offsets.bin
  • Size: 345,153,752 Bytes
  • SHASUM: 0abedde32e1ac7181897f82d10d40acfe14f2022
WCC (Binary) The Weakly-Connected Compontent (WCC) array in binary format and little endian order.
This array consists of |V| 4-Bytes elements The vertices in the same component have the same values in the WCC array.
  • Name: MS1-wcc.bin
  • Size: 172,576,872 Bytes
  • SHASUM: 4c491dd96e3582b70a203ae4a910001381278d75
Names (tar.gz) This compressed file contains 120 files in CSV format using ‘;’ as the separator. Each row has two columns: ID of vertex and name of the sequence.
Note: If the graph has a ‘N2O Reordering’ file, the n2o array should be used to convert the vertex ID to old vertex ID which is used for identifying name of the protein in the `names.tar.gz` file.
  • Name: names.tar.gz
  • Size: 27,130,045,933 Bytes
  • SHASUM: ba00b58bbb2795445554058a681b573c751ef315
N2O Reordering (Binary) The New to Old (N2O) reordering array of the graph in binary format and little endian order.
It consists of |V| 4-Bytes elements and identifies the old ID of each vertex which is used in searching the name of vertex (protein) in the names.tar.gz file .
  • Name: MS1-n2o.bin
  • Size: 172,576,872 Bytes
  • SHASUM: b163320b6349fed7a00fb17c4a4a22e7d124b716
OJSON The charactersitics of the graph and shasums of the files.
It is in the open json format and needs a closing brace (}) to be appended before being passed to a json parser.
  • Name: MS1.ojson
  • Size: 736 Bytes
  • SHASUM: c60afa0652955fd46f1bb8056380523504d69fa6


For the explanation about the plots, please refer to the MS-BioGraphs paper.
To have a better resolution, please click on the images.

Degree Distribution
Weight Distribution
Vertex-Relative Weight Distribution
Degree Decomposition
Cell-Binned Average Weight Degree Distribution
Weakly-Connected Components Size Distribution


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