In this update, Queen’s University researcher Jing-xiao Liang gives an overview of the 2nd ATBEST Summer School held in Linkӧping, Sweden.
As ATBEST fellows, we not only focus on experimental work in the lab, but also concern ourselves with real world issues and exploring advanced biogas technologies is one of our goals. In June 2015, we visited Sweden, the first country in Europe to meet the renewable energy targets set by EU for 2020 for our second summer school.
Fig 1: ATBEST fellows with their hosts at Linköping University
The EU biogas production
In 2013, there was over 14500 biogas plants in Europe, with an energy output of around 13.4 MTOE. This is an impressive two digit growth (10.2% up on 2012) since 2012 (EurObserv’ER 2014) 1 KTOE = 11.630 GWh
Fig 2a: Top 12 European countries by 2013 biogas production
Biomethane production in EU
Biomethane production is gaining popularity primarily with the countries in the European Union because it enables them to reduce reliance on natural gas imports. On the basis of various studies, at least 258 biomethane plants were in service in the European Union at the end of June 2014 in just 12 member countries. (EurObserv’ER 2014)
Fig 2b: Numbers of biomethane plants by European country (June 2014)
Since the 1973 oil crisis, Sweden’s ambitious goal of reducing their reliance on fossil fuels as the primary source of power was finally achieved, with more than 50% of energy now being produced by sources of renewable energy.
In Sweden, biogas has been produced and used with sewage treatment plants since the 1960s, (Svenska Biogasföreningen, 2004). Biogas has been used as a vehicle fuel since the early 1990s. (Energimyndigheten, 2011b).(1)
Fig 3: Overview of the biogas system applied in Sweden
Nowadays, Sweden has a well-balanced fleet with 36,520 light duty vehicles, 1,530 buses and 550 HD trucks. One unique fact about Sweden is that even without access to a natural gas pipeline system (except a 300 km stretch along the southwest coast), they have managed to build up a good refuelling network in the southern half of the country, and are now expanding into the northern part. At the end of 2011 there were over 130 public filling stations and there are more than a dozen cities where the bus fleets completely rely on biomethane. (2)
Fig 4: Biogas filling station in Stockholm
Sweden makes up 10.2% of Europe, with a population of approximately 9.7 million and 20 people/km2. In 2012 Sweden was ranked 8th in patent applications per GDP for the top 10 origins, followed by South Korea, Japan, China, Germany, Switzerland, France and United States. The first day in Linköping University we learned about IPR (Intelligent Property Protection) & Commercial awareness from Arne Jacobsson.
Fig 5: Arne Jacobsson delivering a lecture to ATBEST summer school
1. As researchers, we should be aware of how Intellectual Properties can be protected and how to gain value from having them. After we publish our paper we should consider applying for a patent.
2. Patent protection is territorial – a Swedish patent is only valid in Sweden and it can be maintained for 20 years. If the patent relates to a medicinal or plant protection product, the term of the patent can in some cases be extended by five years, using supplementary protection.
3. Professor’s privilege, researchers and academics working in colleges and universities in Sweden automatically own the right to inventions and copyright works that they produce.
4. Useful patent websites:
European patents: www.espacenet.com
US patents: www.vspto.gov
Sweden is one of the world leaders in recycling, with less than one per cent of Sweden’s household waste ending up in rubbish dumps. On the second day of the summer school, we visited a municipal biogas plant in Linköping – Svensk Biogas Tekniska Verken.
Fig 6: ATBEST fellows at Tekniska Verken
More than 90 percent of the households in Linköping are heated by district heating from Tekniska Verken. They have around 260,000 private and corporate clients who benefit from their products and services which include electricity, water, district heating, district cooling, waste management, broadband and biogas.
Fig 7: ATBEST fellows at Svensk Biogas
Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA)
LCA is a technique used to assess the environmental impact associated with all the stages of a product’s life from beginning to the end.
LCAs can help avoid a narrow outlook on environmental concerns by:
- Compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases;
- Evaluating the potential impacts associated with identified inputs and releases;
- Interpreting the results to help make a more informed decision.(3)
Fig 8: Life-cycle assessment workshop
Site-visit of Scandinavian biogas at Sofielund and Henriksdal
As an ATBEST partner, our schedule on the third day was to visit Scandinavian Biogas, which has become one of Sweden’s largest private producers of biogas since it was founded in 2005. They focus on operating and optimizing industrial scale biogas plants.
Fig 9: ATBEST fellows at Scandinavian biogas
Biogas projects are managed in close cooperation with private and municipal stakeholders in the Nordic region, particularly in east central Sweden, which is currently the company’s main market.
Fig 10: High-pressure biogas container
The Nobel Prize is another great example of innovation in Sweden and we were able to visit the Nobel Prize Museum in Stockholm. Between 1901 and 2014, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 567 times to 889 people and organizations to celebrate exceptional people from around the world. As Marie Curie Fellows, we learnt that Marie Curie was the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903. She was also the first person to be awarded two Nobel Prizes, as she was also awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1911.
Fig 11: ATBEST fellows at the Nobel Prize Museum